The word interpretation comes from word interpret, the dictionary explanation of the word interpret is “to give or provide the meaning of, explain, explicate”. Interpretation on the other hand has wide variety of meanings; it could mean from explaining the artistic or creative work of another person to – as Sigmund Freud – says could be the knowledge of unconscious activities of mind also know as dream interpretation. Interpretation when used with word language means act of facilitating the communication either simultaneously or consecutively, between the user of oral or sign language. Even though it is difficult to calculate the total number of languages spoken all around the world, but according to one research Ethnologic organization (http://www.ethnologue.com/) lists 6,809 distinct languages to be spoken all over the world. Also according to one of the studies as of 1997 the Christian bible as whole or in parts has been translated into 2,197 different languages.
Language Interpretation in a professional world stands for facilitating of communication from one language to another languages or languages and the mediator that facilitates this communication is known as interpreter. Interpreter’s role is not only to convert message or expression from a source language and convey it into an equivalent or close to equivalent target language in a real time, but it is to interpret and convey the every semantic element (tone and register) and every intention and feeling of the message that the source-language speaker is directing to target-language recipients. It does require lot of attention to detail as the tone and feelings could be interpreted differently in different culture, so the interpreter does not only have to be fluent in both the source and target language, but need to have firm understanding of different cultures as well.
Languages interpreter can be performed in many different ways. Provided below are few of the common modes of interpretation that are used on regular basis:
Consecutive Interpretation: Consecutive interpreting – some time also know as ad hoc or face to face interpretation – is a mode of interpretation in which the speech is divided into segments. The interpreter will listen to few sentences of source-language speaker and then interpret these sentences and then allow source-language speaker to continue.
Simultaneous Interpretation: In simultaneous interpretation, as derived from the name interpreter convey the message in the source language as soon as they can render the message from target language. Mostly simultaneous interpretation is utilized in the conference where interpreter sits in the booth and interoperates and conveys the message on the microphone which is received by the audience through the head phones.
Whispered Interpretation: Whispered Interpretation is also a form of simultaneous interpretation in which interpreter sits or stands next to small group of target-language audience and interprets as soon as message is rendered from source language. In whispered interpreting method does not require any equipment, but may be done via a microphone and headphones if the participants prefer.
Relay Interpretation: This is the type of interpretation is used when the source message needs to be translated in multiple target languages. In this case the source message is translated in one commonly known language and then translated to multiple languages by different interpreters. This type of interpretation is utilized in meetings where there are audiences who speak different languages.
Liaison Interpretation: Liaison interpretation is the one in which interpreter provides the interpretation in both directions. Liaison interpretation can either be consecutive or whisper interpretation. Interpreter might need to take some notes during the liaison interpretation but does not require any more equipment.
As the population of the world is increasingly migrating and traveling the distances and diverse population living in global village and different cultures and languages are coming in contact and different business reaching out to international market the need of interpreters and translators is increasing on regular basis. According to 2000 US census there are 14,005,410 non-English speaking households in US out of which 3,026,542 of the household are linguistically isolated. Linguistically Isolated household is one in which no member over the age of 14 speaks only English or speaks non-English language and speak very well English, and the number of such households are rising on regular basis, so the need for an unprejudiced, professional workforce of translators and interpreters is still rising.
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